HomeDev guideRecipesAPI ReferenceGraphQL
Dev guideUser GuideGitHubNuGetDev CommunitySubmit a ticketLog In
GitHubNuGetDev CommunitySubmit a ticket

Where

Describes the where parameter, part of the GraphQL API used for the Optimizely querying service, when retrieving content in Optimizely solutions.

The where parameter specifies the filter condition for the result returned by the query. It is used to filter and search on values in fields to reduce or increase the results retrieved by Optimizely Graph.

where: [{filter_condition}]

The filter_condition is defined like this:

predicate: {
      filter_operators: expression
}

Definitions

  • {filter_condition} – Defines the conditions to be met for the result to be returned. There is no limit to the number of predicates that can be included in a filter_condition.
  • predicate – A field name.
  • filter_operators – Matching functions (called "operators") that operate specifically on string, number, date, and Boolean values, and operator options like boost and synonyms that work together with the operators.
  • expression – A string, numeric, enumerated, or Boolean value.

📘

Note

Optimizely supports using _modified extend argument to query contents (Whenever contents have been synced to our service, that contents would be marked with _modified extend field equal now())

filter_operatorsDescriptionString typeSearchableString typeNumber typeDate typeBool type
eqUsed to test equality between two literal expressions, can be case-insensitive.YesYesYesYesNo
noteqUsed to test the condition of two literal expressions not being equal to each other, can be case-insensitive.YesYesYesYesNo
likeDetermines whether a specific character string matches a specified pattern.YesYesNoNoNo
containsFilter fields that contains character-based data for precise or less precise matches to single words and phrases.NoYesNoNoNo
gtUsed to test the condition of one expression being greater than another.NoNoYesYesNo
gteUsed to test the condition of one expression being greater than or equal to another.NoNoYesYesNo
ltUsed to test the condition of one expression being less than another.NoNoYesYesNo
lteUsed to test the condition of one expression being less than or equal to another.NoNoYesYesNo
existDetermines whether a specific expression exists or not.YesYesYesNoYes
startsWithDetermines whether a specific expression starts with a specific pattern.YesYesNoNoNo
endsWithDetermines whether a specific expression ends with a specific pattern.YesNoNoNoNo
inDetermines whether a specific literal expression is in an array.YesYesYesNoNo
notInDetermines whether a specific literal expression is not in an array.YesYesYesNoNo
boostBoost a {filter_condition} by a number (cannot be a negative number), so certain results can be ranked higher when sorting by RELEVANCE.YesYesYesYesYes
synonymsEnables the expansion of the expression with synonyms stored in the system.YesYesNoNoNo

Examples

The following examples show how to use some common filter conditions in where clause.

Where with eq operators

{
  BiographyPage(where: {
    Name: {
         eq: "Alan Turing"
     }
  }, locale: [en]) {
    Name
    Language {
      Name
      DisplayName
    }
  }
}

Query with dates

Querying for date values is flexible. We can query for exact date values, which are indexed in the ISO 8601 standard. You can query for an exact date value.

{
  BiographyPage(where: { Born: { eq: "1983-11-14T00:00:00Z" } }) {
    items {
      Name
      Born
    }
    total
  }
}

You can write this date query in a different format, but then you need to specify the timezone UTC, or else the date value is converted to a date value from local system, resulting in no matches.

{
  BiographyPage(where: { Born: { eq: "11/14/1983 00:00:00 AM UTC" } }) {
    items {
      Name
      Born
    }
    total
  }
}

The power of date queries is that you can query for results between time ranges, with an optional time. This query returns results where the value for Born is equal or greater than "1947-07-30".

{
  BiographyPage(where: { Born: { gte: "1947-07-30" } }) {
    items {
      Name
      Born
    }
    total
  }
}

Where with multiple filter conditions

{ 
  BiographyPage(where: {
      Name: {
        eq: "Alan Turing"
      }
      Language: {
        DisplayName: {
          eq: "English"
        }
      }
  }, locale: [en]) {
    Name
    Language {
      Name
      DisplayName
    }
  }
}

📘

Note

The AND operator is the default logical operator that applies to the group of multiple filtered conditions, so the above query can be understood like this:

if (Name == "Alan Turing" AND Language.DisplayName == "English")

See Logical connectors for information about logical operators AND, OR, and NOT.

Where with _modified extend date argument.

The _modified field contains the date time when content was created/updated/deleted in the service. The value in _modify will not be the same as the Created/Saved value on the content.

The _modified field can be used to accomplish delta import of content from the service, for example "give me content that has been modified after (gt) 2023-09-13T04:36:14Z. You can use filtering by _modify field with cursor to accomplish good delta import of content from the service.

{ 
  BiographyPage(where: {
      _modified: {
        gte: "2021-09-13T04:36:14Z"
      }
  }, locale: [en]) {
    Name
    Language {
      Name
      DisplayName
    }
  }
}